Xanthan gum, also known as yellow gum, xanthan gum, and xanthan, is a monospora polysaccharide produced by the fermentation of Pseudomonas, from the cabbage black rot, Xanthomonas campestris, with carbohydrate as the main The raw material is subjected to aerobic fermentation bioengineering technology to cut off the 1,6-glycosidic bond, and after opening the branch, an acidic extracellular heteropolysaccharide composed of a linear chain is synthesized by a 1,4-bond.
Xanthan gum is an extracellular microbe produced by fermentation of saccharides by Xanthomonas. Due to its special structure and colloidal properties, it has many functions and can be widely used in various fields of the national economy as an emulsifier, stabilizer, gel thickener, sizing agent, and film forming agent.
Xanthan gum is a light yellow to white flowable powder with a slight odor. Soluble in cold, hot water, neutral solution, freeze-resistant and thawed, insoluble in ethanol. Dispersed in water, emulsified into a stable hydrophilic viscous colloid.
Xanthan gum is currently thickened, suspended, emulsified and stabilized in the world. The most superior bio-adhesive. The amount of pyruvate groups at the molecular side chain end of xanthan gum has a great influence on its performance. Xanthan gum has the general properties of long-chain polymers, but it contains more functional groups than general polymers and exhibits unique properties under certain conditions. Its conformation in aqueous solution is diverse and does not exhibit different characteristics under conditions.
1. Suspension and emulsification
Xanthan gum has a good suspension effect on insoluble solids and oil droplets. The xanthan gum sol molecule can form a super-bonded ribbon-like spiral interpolymer, which constitutes a weak gel-like network structure, so it can support the morphology of solid particles, droplets and bubbles, showing strong emulsion stabilization and high suspension. ability.
2. Good water solubility
Xanthan gum dissolves quickly in water and has good water solubility. It can also be dissolved especially in cold water, which can save complicated processing and is easy to use. However, due to its strong hydrophilicity, if the water is directly added without stirring, the outer layer absorbs water and expands into a micelle, which prevents moisture from entering the inner layer and affects the action. Therefore, it must be used correctly. The dry powder of xanthan gum or the dry powder auxiliary materials such as salt and sugar are mixed well, and then slowly added to the water being stirred to be used as a solution.
The xanthan gum solution has a low concentration and high viscosity (1% aqueous solution has a viscosity equivalent to 100 times that of gelatin) and is an efficient thickener.
The aqueous solution of xanthan gum has a high viscosity under static or low shearing action, and exhibits a sharp drop in viscosity under high shear, but the molecular structure does not change. When the shear force is removed, the original viscosity is immediately restored. The relationship between shear and viscosity is completely plastic. The pseudoplasticity of xanthan gum is very prominent, and this pseudoplasticity is extremely effective for stabilizing suspensions and emulsions.
5. Stability to heat
The viscosity of the xanthan gum solution does not change greatly with the change of temperature. The viscosity of the general polysaccharide changes due to heating, but the viscosity of the aqueous solution of xanthan gum does not change between 10 and 80 ° C, even at low concentrations. The aqueous solution still exhibits a stable high viscosity over a wide temperature range. 1% xanthan gum solution (containing 1% potassium chloride) is heated from 25 ° C to 120 ° C. Its viscosity is only reduced by 3%.
6. Stability to acids and bases
The xanthan gum solution is very stable to acid and alkali. The viscosity is not affected between pH 5-10, and the viscosity is slightly changed when the pH is less than 4 and greater than 11. In the range of PH3-11, the maximum viscosity is less than 10%. Xanthan gum can be dissolved in various acid solutions, such as 5% sulfuric acid, 5% nitric acid, 5% acetic acid, 10% hydrochloric acid and 25% phosphoric acid, and these xanthan gum solutions are quite stable at normal temperature. The quality of the parts will not change for several months. Xanthan gum is also soluble in sodium hydroxide solution and has thickening properties. The resulting solution is very stable at room temperature. Xanthan gum can be degraded by strong oxidants such as perchloric acid and persulfuric acid, and the degradation accelerates with increasing temperature.
7. Stability of the salt
The xanthan gum solution is miscible with many salt solutions (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, etc.) and the viscosity is not affected. At higher salt concentrations, the solubility is maintained even in saturated salt solutions without precipitation and flocculation, and its viscosity is hardly affected.
8. Stability of enzymatic hydrolysis
The stable double helix structure of xanthan gum makes it highly resistant to oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis. Many enzymes such as protease, amylase, cellulase and hemicellulase can not degrade xanthan gum.
Stabilizers, thickeners and processing aids for a variety of purposes in the industry, including canned and bottled foods, bakery foods, dairy products, frozen foods, salad dressings, beverages, brews, confectionery, pastries Flower accessories, etc. When making food, it is easy to flow, easy to pour and pour, easy to pipe, and reduce energy consumption.
Recommended application amount
Product dosage (%) effect
Fruit juice drink 0.1-0.3 thickening suspension, smooth taste, natural flavor
Ice cream 0.1-0.3 microporous, no ice, shorten aging time, make the product organization delicate
Soy sauce, oyster sauce 0.05-0.1 Good salt tolerance, increased consistency, suitable for making sauce, enhancing wall hanging and adhesion
Frozen Confections 0.1-0.2 Combines water, produces consistency and fineness, prevents dehydration
Baked goods 0.5-1.5 Fruit filling, suitable for all kinds of fillings
Gel 0.5-1.5 Confectionary Gel, Seasoning, Jelly Forming
Soft drink 0.01-0.3 Suspension, foaming agent, no delamination, thickening
Salad seasoning 0.1-0.3 Conducive to molding, prevent water precipitation
Instant noodles 0.2-0.3 Increases toughness, improves chewing, saves fuel, and maintains moisture
Sausage 0.2-0.3 Conducive to molding, improve enema, maintain moisture and oil
Canned meat 0.1-0.2 Convenient for seasoning and freezing of soup
Cheese 0.2-0.5 Accelerates the pores and prevents syneresis
Cake 0.1-0.3 Increases micropores, softness, and extended shelf life
Bread 0.1-0.2 Soft, ideal for brown bread with coarse fiber
Dehydrated food 0.2-0.4 speeds up recovery and maintains color and taste
Medicine, make-up 0.2-1.0 Stabilizer, suspending agent, moisturizer, thickening, adhesion, lubrication
Toothpaste 0.4-0.6 Easy to make toothpaste paste, improve toothpaste brushing performance, good dispersibility, smooth mouthfeel
Canned pets 0.1-0.3 makes the minced meat easy to solidify
Fish and shrimp feed 0.5-2.0 binder, used for fish and shrimp seedling feed, fish medicine
Petroleum Industry 0.2-0.4 has good flow deformation and is the highest quality drilling mud stabilizer
Cut tobacco 0.1-0.3 Prevents tobacco breakage, tobacco flavor emulsification and moisturizing adhesive, suitable for tobacco sheets
Printing and dyeing 0.5-1.5 Vehicle, adhesive, convenient for pigment dispersion, coloring and color enhancement
Ceramic 0.3-1.0 Suitable for suspension stabilizers for ceramic glazes
Pesticides 0.1-0.3 Suitable for pesticide suspensions and various liquids with good stability
Colloidal Explosives 0.5-2.0 Slurry, Colloid, Waterproof Explosives
Water-soluble paint 0.2-0.3 Suitable for water-soluble paints, latex paints, good stability, easy to spray
Other food industry 1.0-2.0 has good toughness and luster, no break, no skin